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Dictionary of Chemical Substances

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In chemistry, a salt is a chemical compound composed of an ionic cation and anion assembly. Salt is composed of related cation numbers (positively charged ions) and anions (negative charged ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). Such product ions may be inorganic, such as chloride (Cl−), or organic, such as acetate (CH3CO−2); and they may be monatomic, such as fluoride (F−) or polyatomic, such as sulphate (SO2−4).

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Therefore, metal oxides usually contain oxygen anion in the oxidation state of −2. Much of the Earth's crust is made up of solid oxides, the product of oxidising elements in the soil or in water. Oxide coating also produces even materials called pure components. For example, a thin sheet of Al2O3 (called a passivation layer) produces aluminium foil that protects the foil from further corrosion. Some elements can form several oxides, which vary in the sum of the product that interacts with the oxygen. Examples include steel, magnesium, nitrogen (see oxide of nitrogen), silicon, titanium, and aluminium. In these cases the oxides are characterised by the number of atoms involved

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A chemical compound may be considered any substance composed of two or more different forms of atoms (atomic elements) in a defined stoichiometric proportion; the term is more easily understood when discussing pure chemical compounds. It follows from the fact that they are composed of fixed amounts of two or more types of atoms that chemical compounds may be converted into compounds or substances each with less atoms, through chemical reaction.

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Organic Compound

Organic compounds in chemistry are typically any chemical compounds which contain carbon-hydrogen bonds. Millions of organic compounds are known due to the ability of the carbon to catenate (form chains of other carbon atoms). The discipline known as organic chemistry includes the study of the structures, reactions and syntheses of organic compounds. For historical reasons, a few classes of carbon-containing compounds (e.g., carbonate anion salts and cyanide salts) together with a handful of other exceptions ( e.g., carbon dioxide) are not classified as organic compounds and are considered inorganic. Other than those just described, there is little agreement among chemists on exactly what carbon-content

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Inorganic compound

Usually, an inorganic compound is a chemical compound that loses bonds with carbon – hydrogen, that is, a compound that is not an organic. The difference, however, is not well established and accepted and the authorities have different opinions on the subject. Studies of inorganic compounds are called inorganic chemistry. Most of the Earth's crust contains inorganic materials, while the deep mantle compositions remain active areas of investigation. Any basic carbon-containing compounds are also considered as inorganic. Examples contain carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonates, carbides, cyanides, cyanates, thiocyanates and others.

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Modern meanings concern the main chemical reactions common to all acids. Most acids found in real life are aqueous solutions, which may be dissolved in water, making the concepts Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry the most appropriate. The most commonly used definition is the Brønsted-Lowry definition; unless otherwise stated, it is presumed that acid-base reactions require the movement of a proton (H+) from an acid to a base. Compared to all three meanings hydronium ions are acids. While alcohols and amines can be Brønsted-Lowry acids, owing to the lone pairs of electrons on their oxygen and nitrogen atoms they can also act as Lewis bases.

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A nonmetal (or non-metal) in chemistry is a chemical element often without the properties of a metal. A nonmetal physically tends to have a relatively low melting point, boiling point and density. Once solid, a nonmetal is normally porous and generally has low thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Chemically, nonmetals tend to have relatively high energy from ionisation, contact with electrons, and electronegativity. As they react with other elements and chemical compounds, they receive or exchange the electrons.

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In chemistry, an element is a pure substance that can not be broken down by chemical means, consisting of atoms in their atomic nuclei containing equal numbers of protons. The number of protons in the nucleus is the fundamental property of an element, which is referred to as the atomic number (represented by the symbol Z).[1] All the baryonic matter in the universe is composed by chemical elements.

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Interesting facts about chemistry you may not know

Interesting facts about hydrogen - the lightest element in the periodic table.

Hydrogen is the first element in the periodic system table. Hydrogen is known to be the lightest of all, the most abundant in the Universe, the essential element for life

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Interesting facts about helium

Helium is the first rare gas element in the periodic system table. In the Universe, it ranks second in abundance after elemental hydrogen.

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Interesting facts about lithium

Lithium is the alkali metal element, located in the third cell in the periodic table system. Lithium is the lightest of all solid metals and can cut a knife.

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Interesting Facts About Beryllium

Beryllium is the lightest alkaline earth metal. Beryllium is found in precious stones such as emeralds and aquamarine. Beryllium and its compounds are both carcinogenic.

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Interesting Facts About Carbon

Carbon is the non-metallic element in the sixth cell in the periodic system table. Carbon is one of the most important elements in all life, it is also known as the back.

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