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Basic definitions in Chemistry

What is a chemical equation?

Chemical Equation is a form of describing a chemical reaction in which the name of each chemical substance will be replaced by their chemical symbol.

In the Chemical Equation, the arrow direction represents the direction in which a reaction occurs. For one-way reactions, we'll show by an arrow from left to right. So the substances on the left will be involved, and the one on the right will be the product.

Balanced Equation Definition

A balanced equation is a chemical reaction equation in which the total charge and the number of atoms for each element in the reaction are the same for both the reactants and the components. In other words, the mass and charge on both sides of the reaction are equal.

Examples of Unbalanced and Balanced Equations

The reactants and products of a chemical reaction are listed in an unbalanced chemical equation, but the quantities needed to fulfil the conservation of mass are not specified. This equation, for example, is unbalanced in terms of mass for the reaction between iron oxide and carbon to form iron and carbon dioxide:

Fe2O3 + C → Fe + CO2

Since there are no ions on both sides of the equation, the charge is balanced (net neutral charge).
On the reactants part of the equation (to the left of the arrow), there are two iron atoms, but only one on the products side (right of the arrow). You can say the equation isn't balanced even though you don't count the other atoms' quantities.
On both the left and right sides of the arrow, the aim of balancing the equation is to get the same number of each kind of atom. This is accomplished by altering the compound coefficients (numbers placed in front of compound formulas). Subscripts (small numbers on the right of certain atoms, such as iron and oxygen in this case) are never altered.

The balanced equation is:

2 Fe2O3 + 3 C → 4 Fe + 3 CO2


What is a substance in chemistry?

Observe, all that is visible, including our own bodies, are objects. There are natural objects such as animals, plants, rivers, soil ... are artificial objects.

Natural objects consist of a number of different substances. And artificial objects are made up of materials. Every material is a substance or a mixture of some substances. For example: Aluminum, plastics, glass, ...

What are their properties?

Each substance has certain properties: state or form (solid, liquid, gas) color, odor and taste. Calculation or insoluble in water ... Melting point, boiling point, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, etc.

And the ability to transform into other substances, for example, the ability to decompose, run ... is the chemical properties.

What is atom?

All substances are made up of extremely small, electrically neutral particles called atoms. There are tens of millions of different substances, but only over 100 types of atoms.

The atom consists of a positively charged nucleus and a shell made up of one or more negatively charged electrons

Most popular equation

Combination reaction

Also known as a synthesis reaction. One kind of frequently occurring combination reaction is the reaction of an element with oxygen to form an oxide. Under certain conditions, metals and nonmetals both react readily with oxygen. Once ignited, magnesium reacts rapidly and dramatically, reacting with oxygen from the air to create a fine magnesium oxide powder.

2CO + O2 => 2CO2 O2 + Si => SiO2 C2H2 + 2HCHO => HOCH2CCCH2OH O2 + Se => SeO2 2H + NH2OH => NH4OH Ca3(PO4)2 + H3PO4 => 3CaHPO4 C2H4 + H2O => C2H5OH View All Combination reaction

Decomposition reaction

Many decomposition reactions involve heat , light, or electricity to input energy. Binary compounds are compounds which consist of only two elements. The simplest sort of reaction to decomposition is when a binary compound breaks down into its elements. Mercury (II) oxide, a red solid, decomposes to form mercury and oxygen gas when heated. Also, a reaction is regarded as a decomposition reaction even if one or more of the products are still a compound. A metal carbonate breaks down to form a metal oxide and carbon dioxide gas. Calcium carbonate for example decomposes into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.

2Al(OH)3 => Al2O3 + 3H2O 3HClO3 => H2O + 2ClO2 + HClO4 2Fe(OH)3 => Fe2O3 + 3H2O Ba(HCO3)2 => H2O + CO2 + BaCO3 CaCl2 => Ca + Cl2 4Al(NO3)3 => 2Al2O3 + 12NO2 + 3O2 C4H10 => CH4 + C3H6 View All Decomposition reaction

Oxidation-reduction reaction

An oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction is a type of chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons between two species. An oxidation-reduction reaction is any chemical reaction in which the oxidation number of a molecule, atom, or ion changes by gaining or losing an electron. Redox reactions are common and vital to some of the basic functions of life, including photosynthesis, respiration, combustion, and corrosion or rusting.

2P2O5 + 3HBr => 3HPO3 + POBr3 4C + Li => 4CO + BeS 2H2O + O2 + 2SO2 => 2H2SO4 16HCl + 2KMnO4 => 5Cl2 + 8H2O + 2KCl + 2MnCl2 BaCl2 => Cl2 + Ba 2H2SO4 + 2KI + 2NaNO2 => 2H2O + I2 + Na2SO4 + NO + K2SO4 C + 2H2O => 2H2 + CO2 View All Oxidation-reduction reaction

Single-replacement reaction

A + BC → AC + B Element A is a metal in this general reaction and replaces element B, a metal in the compound as well. If the replacement element is a non-metal, it must replace another non-metal in a compound, and it becomes the general equation. Many metals easily react with acids, and one of the reaction products when they do so is hydrogen gas. Zinc reacts to the aqueous zinc chloride and hydrogen with hydrochloride acid (see figure below).

CH3CH2CH2OH + C2H5COOH => H2O + C2H5COOCH2CH2CH3 C2H2 + 2Na => H2 + Na2C2 4Cl2 + 2Fe2O3 => 4FeCl2 + 3O2 3Cl2 + 6Fe(NO3)2 => 4Fe(NO3)3 + 2FeCl3 2Al + 6HBr => 3H2 + 2AlBr3 2AgNO3 + Cu => 2Ag + Cu(NO3)2 Mg + ZnCl2 => Zn + MgCl2 View All Single-replacement reaction

Double-replacement reaction

AB + CD → AD + CB A and C are positive charged cations in this reaction, while B and D are negative charged anions. Double-replacement reactions typically occur in aqueous solution between the compounds. To cause a reaction, one of the products is usually a solid precipitate, a gas, or a molecular compound like water. A precipitate forms in a double-replacement reaction when the cations from one reactant combine to form an insoluble ionic compound with the anions from the other reactant. The following reaction occurs when aqueous solutions of potassium iodide and lead ( II) nitrate are blended.

2NH3 + COCl2 => (NH2)2CO + 2HCl AgNO3 + KCl => AgCl + KNO3 2H2O + 2NH3 + ZnCl2 => 2NH4Cl + Zn(OH)2 2NaOH + SO2 => H2O + Na2SO3 (NH4)2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 => 2H2O + 2NH3 + CaSO4 CH3Cl + Cl2 => HCl + CH2Cl2 2NaOH + CrSO4 => Na2SO4 + Cr(OH)2 View All Double-replacement reaction


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